PROVINCE OF NEWFOUNDLAND
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost of Canadian Atlantic provinces.
It comprises the island of Newfoundland and Labrador peninsular to the northwest. On the mainland, the province is bordered by Quebec. The island is separated from Labrador by a narrow deep Strait of Belle, and from the province of Nova Scotia by Cabot Strait. Mountainous Newfoundland is an extension of the Appalachian mountain range. The continental part of the province belongs to the Laurentian Upland that occupies the eastern edge of the Canadian Shield. The Grand Banks of Newfoundland, which is considered one of the richest fishing areas in the world, is located southeast of the island. The province is extremely rich in minerals.
The majority of the province’s population lives along the coast of Avalon Peninsula. Newfoundland’s places of interest are related to the eventful history of the island. There are several National Historic Parks. The most important is located in the archeological excavation site of the first Vikings settlement of XI century near L’Anse aux-Meadows National Historic Park – the only historical monument in Canada named a “World Heritage Site” by UNESCO (in 1978). The area has hardly changed since the landing of Vikings from Scandinavia and Greenland. They are considered the first Europeans to reach the North America.
St.Johns is the capital of the province of Newfoundland and is considered one of the oldest English settlements in North America. The first inhabitants settled here back in the 1500s, about a decade after Columbus had discovered America. Giovanni Cabot was the first European to land in the area of St. John’s location on June 24, 1497. St. John is called the city of churches
The highest Baptist Church is Basilica of St. John the Baptist, built in 1855. The best view of the city opens from the Signal Hill, which is a national historic landmark. Last Anglo-French battles that took place in North America during the Napoleonic Wars were held in this area. It is a place where in 1901, G. Marconi received the first transoceanic radio signal sent by Morse code from Cornwall, England. The Cabot Tower, situated on Signal hill, was named after Giovanni Cabot. The Memorial University and the Newfoundland Freshwater Resource Center, with the only fluvarium in North America, are situated to the north-east of St. John’s. Visitors can observe nature through a 25 meters height wall of glass, the Nagle`s Hill Brook.
To the south of St. John’s there is a picturesque fishing village of Quidi Vidi, which is a favorite place for film and photo shoots. Since 1826, Quidi Vidi Lake is the place of annual sailing regatta, the Royal St. John`s Regatta. The peculiarity of more than 200 coastal villages of the island lies in the preserved buildings used as lodges of different fraternities and secret societies (Orange, Masons etc)., that have spread in Newfoundland in XIX – beginning of XX century more than elsewhere in North America. The province has 3 national parks and 77 provincial parks. Folklore festivals are regularly held.
Cape Spear is a territory of a national park. There is a lighthouse, which was built in 1835 and is now a historic landmark. It is a good site to watch whales and icebergs. Icebergs sail from Greenland and can be as 3-story buildings in height. Corner Brook is the second largest city and port. There is a place in the city where Captain Cook began his famous voyage around the world from. Labrador is a Nature Reserve, the habitat of caribou and migratory birds.